HEALTH 
Health Status in Jordan
 


Jordan is a country with limited natural resources, which places a high reliance on its human capital. The Kingdom boosts a physician density of 25.5 physicians per 10,000 capita, higher than the average level in the region. It also has high densities of nurses and pharmacists, quite similar to global leaders in the field (Jordinvest, 2012).
 
Healthcare system in Jordan is provided through both the private and public sectors.
Health spending in Jordan is high compared to other MENA and middle-income countries, with Jordan’s expenditures on healthcare standing at 7.72% 
 of the gross domestic product in 2011.

As a percentage of GDP, total expenditure on health amounted to 8.0% in 2010 (according to WHO statistics), surpassing the average level of expenditure in the Middle East, which reached 4.5% that year.

Facts & Numbers:
 
1.     Jordan was considered a leading medical tourism destination in the Arab World (the World Bank, 2010) and fifth globally. Recently, it was recognized by the International Medical Tourism Journal (IMTJ) to be Destination of the Year 2014. This increases possibilities of further investment and development, which was clear over the last decade in the number of hospitals and beds available. 

2.   The lowest infant and maternal mortality rates in the region.

3.     Has one of the highest rates of public health spending in the region (7.72% in 2011).

4.     Private expenditure on health made up 32.3% of the total expenditure of health in 2010, with the remainder being supplied by the Government.
 
5.     Public sector spending - the Jordanian Government’s expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure amounted to 18.6%.

6.    The number of hospitals under the Ministry of Health rose from 23 in year 2000 to 31 in 2011, raising the number of beds to 4,572 from 3,229. Impressive growth was also evident in the private sector with the addition of 9 new hospitals over the past decade, raising the number of beds available from 3,212 in 2000 to 3,918 beds. (MoH)

7. 
  Available data on morbidity confirms the importance of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and respiratory diseases (pneumonia and asthma)

8.
   Causes related to cardiovascular (Circulatory) were the leading causes of death in Jordan followed by neoplasms and external causes.

9. 
   Jordan has a lot to offer in terms of medical tourism. Aside from the high standard of medical care and advanced machinery and technologies in the hospitals, Jordan is clean, low on occurrence of infectious diseases, and is home to natural healing wonders, such as the Dead Sea and Ma’in Springs. 
  • Health sector in Jordan faces a number of challenges:
 1.     Jordan is a country with limited natural resources, and consequently places a high reliance on its human capital, which is highly educated.
 
2.     The ability to generate sufficient financial resources to cover health care costs.
 
3.     The Syrian refugee influx has overwhelmed the capacity of the sector to deliver quality services to all.  With the heightened demand for health services, the health sector is facing significant financial pressures and shortages.
 
4.     Jordan has to be vigilant in its efforts to maintain its attractiveness as a medical tourism destination. In 2010, some 234,000 patients arrived in Jordan for treatment, making up 23% of the total patients for that year. In 2011, however, as a repercussion of the Arab Spring, the number of incoming patients declined to 180,000.
 
Health Status Indicators

  
 
Life Expectancy Jordan and the World, 1975-2025


 
  •  Health Sector in Jordan is comprised of the following:  
1.      The Ministry of Health
2.      Royal Medical Services
3.      Medical Services provided at Universities – the Jordan University Hospital and                     the King Abdullah University Hospital
4.      Medical services provided in Ministries and Government Institutions
5.      The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics
6.      Private hospitals, clinics, diagnostic and therapeutic centers
7.      Charitable organizations, such as the United Nations Relief and Works Agency                     (UNRWA)
8.      Councils and Organizations, such as the Private Hospitals Association (PHA)
 
 
 Research Areas of Top Priority in Jordan – Medical & Pharmaceutical Sciences
 
Subject Research Issues of Top Priority
Maternal Mortality, Morbidity and High Risk Pregnancy Factors associated with medical disorders of pregnancy
Determination of fetal problems during pregnancy
Primary Health Care and the Integration of Mental Health Services Assessment of primary health care in Jordan
Epidemiology of mental health disorders and evaluation of mental health services in primary health care
Promotion of psychosocial and physical health in the elderly
Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research The use of regenerative medicine in  degenerative diseases
Scaffold research in regenerative medicine
Benign Hematology Factors associated with anemia
Production of blood substitutes
Heart Diseases Factors associated with ischemic heart diseases
Epidemiology valvular heart diseases
Diabetes Mellitus Prevention of diabetes mellitus
Cancer Environmental and genetics factors associated with cancer
Factors affecting spread of cancer in the body
Behavioral and Social Determinates of Health Intervention and promotion of healthy lifestyle
Psychosocial behaviors in relation to chronic illnesses
Biomarkers Discovery for Diagnosis and Prognosis Biomarkers discovery and validation
Molecular Epidemiology of
Diseases
Conducting population-specific genome wide studies to identify genetic variations and predisposition to diseases
Respiratory Tract Infections Control of resistant tuberculosis
Gastrointestinal Tract Infections (Diarrheal Diseases) Antibiotic abuse and bacterial resistance
Causative agents of gastroenteritis
Drug Design and Delivery Systems Development of new pro drugs
Development of dosage forms for pediatric and geriatric patients
Utilization of Jordanian
Medicinal Plants
Isolation and characterization of bioactive constituents of Jordanian medicinal plants.
Toxicity, safety and efficacy studies of Jordanian medicinal plants.
Dental Caries and Periodontal
Diseases Prevention
Evaluation of the effectiveness of school-based dental health programs
Cost effectiveness of oral diseases treatment in Jordan
Prevalence of periodontal diseases and risk factors among Jordanians
 
  •   Specific Health Thematic priorities for research funding in The EU:
1.      Health Promotion
-          Development, evaluation and implementation of innovative environmental supports              for healthy lifestyles among the general public.
-          Innovative approaches to improving the mental health and well-being of children                  and adolescents
-          Research that deepens our understanding of the conditions for the success of                      complex population health interventions that reduce health inequalities
 
2.      Disease Prevention
-          Innovative solutions that encourage effective self-management of chronic disease
-          Research on the comparative effectiveness of personalized biological profiling by                ‘omics’ technologies versus conventional methods
-          Research on the comparative effectiveness of innovative approaches to the use of              information technologies in identifying target groups and implementing disease                    prevention strategies.
-          Research on the biological process of ageing throughout the life course from                         preconceptional stages through to the oldest ages, and research on interventions to             slow the ageing of cells as part of a strategy aimed at addressing major chronic                  diseases.
-          Use of information technologies in identifying target groups and implementing                      disease prevention strategies.
-          Research on interventions to slow the ageing of cells as part of a strategy aimed at              addressing major chronic diseases.
-          Research on the cost-effectiveness of existing population based disease prevention            programs and methods to eliminate and replace ineffective programs.
-          Bilateral or multilateral cooperation with other regions of the world should be                         encouraged, in particular with developing countries in the field of infectious                          diseases
 
3.      Health Policy Research
-          Research on inter-sectoral interventions (e.g. Healthy Cities initiatives, Healthy                    Ageing programs) that bridge environment, economy, transport, education, health                care and social care
-          Research on barriers to inter-sectoral co-operation and on the conditions that lead              to the success of policy interventions should also be encouraged
-          Research on the obstacles to the use of public healthcare resources for population              health gain.
 
4.      Health Service Research
-          Research on innovative interventions to improve the quality and safety of healthcare
-          Research that compares initiatives in different EU Member States, particularly in the            area of benchmarking using performance indicators
-          Research that identifies innovative solutions to the problem of inefficiency in the                  delivery of health care
 
 
Related links:
  1. Ministry of Health (MoH)                              www.moh.gov.jo/en/
  2. Department of Statistics – Jordan (DOS)         www.dos.gov.jo
  3. High Health Council (HHC)                                 www.hhc.gov.jo
  4. Private Hospitals Association (PHA)                 www.phajordan.org
  5. Jordan Medical Council (JMC)                           http://www.jmc.gov.jo/
  6. Jordan Nurses & Midwives
  7. Council (JNMC)                                                     http://www.jnmc.jo/
  8. Health Care Accreditation
  9. Council (HCAC)                                                      http://www.hcac.jo/
  10. The Jordanian Society for Microbial Biodiversity (JSMB)     http://jsmb.webs.com
  11. MONOJO Biotech                                            http://www.monojo.com.jo/Portal/En/Home.aspx
  12. World Health Organisation (WHO)                http://www.who.int/countries/jor/en/
  13. The World Factbook         https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/jo.html
  14. Jordinvest                                                              www.jordinvest.com.jo

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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