Food

Jordan has two primary production areas; the Jordan Valley which is the basket of food in the winter season and the uplands which produce summer crops. Due to the local and global circumstances, climatic condition and the limitation of water resources, the agriculture sector in Jordan faces several challenges and has serious environmental problems related to water resources, water pollution, deforestation, and soil erosion (Encyclopedia of Nations 2005).
Jordan's total area equals 89 km2, less than 10% of the total land area is cultivated, only 3% is used for agricultural production, 1% to 2% in the Jordan valley is mainly irrigated from treated wastewater mixed with fresh surface water and highlands mainly by groundwater wells (FAO 2005). This leaves the country heavily dependent on rainfall, a factor that has delayed agricultural growth (Beintema et al., 2006). The primary crops that are cultivated in Jordan are citrus, fruit trees and vegetables, such as tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers, cauliflowers, and cabbage. Animal production accounts for about a third of agricultural output value, and sheep and goats account for about 90% of livestock output. (Beintema et al., 2006)
The Agriculture sector contributes by 3% of Jordanian GDP, the degree of interest in the food sector in Jordan by national and international organization has increased lately, and agriculture production in Jordan has witnessed a tremendous increase during the last decades. This was mainly due to the expansion in irrigation projects, increase in external funded project numbers, introduction of new production technology and introduction of new hybrid- high yielding varieties.
Agricultural exportation and importation in Jordan equal 17.6% and 16% respectively of the total national exportation and importation (MoA, 2009). Jordan has a self-sufficiency in potato, olives, olive oil and lemon production and surplus in tomato production as shown in table 1 (DoS, 2012).

King Abdullah’s directive to make 2009 a year of agriculture by stepping up efforts to develop the sector, increase its contribution to the GDP, reducing poverty and active food security. (JEDCO, 2012)
Table 1. Jordan Self- Sufficiency Ratio of Food Items


Items SSR Total Exports (ton) Imports (ton) Production (ton)
Wheat 2.1 0 906338 19205
Rice 0.0 3416 183063 0
Barley 4.1 0 745209 32050
Potatoes 75.3 12911 59275 141573
Sugar 0 3958 304699 0
Beans 0 127 2312 0
Chick Peas 10.8 2457 33220 3729
Lentils 1.3 41 10354 132
Olives 100.5 742 0 155640
Olives, Preserved 111.3 3992 1663 22885
Olives Oil 106.3 1371 0.22 21548
Tomatoes 311.5 418516 0 616427
Oranges 54.9 2861 36440 40581
Lemons 96.0 8981 10097 26476
Coffee 0.0 3248 20455 0
Tea 0.0 338 4921 0
Beef 29.2 25336 38003 5235
Mutton 35.3 3658 27995 13262
Goat Meats 99.1 0 47 5124
Chicken Meats 83.7 19352 56460 190262
Cow Milk 100.0 0 0 310429
Table Eggs 97.2 102 13517 43274
Fish 4.4 4520 311869 1248
 
 

Jordan Research Issues of Top National Priority for Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences:
·  Sustainable management of natural resources,
·  Technological innovations in agriculture,
·  Food and nutrition,
·  Biodiversity,
·  Support environment for agriculture.
· Improvement of sustainable productivity of irrigated agriculture and animal production, rain-fed agriculture and rangeland and forests,
· Expanding marketing, trade and competitive ability
Jordan Research Issues of Top National Priority for Food and Nutrition:
· Evaluation of nutritional status of Jordanian with reference to mineral deficiency and the relation to some diseases
· Evaluation and improvement of food quality from biological and chemical aspects
·  Improvement in food manufacturing techniques
Research Priorities in EU for Food Sector:
·    Sustainable management of natural resources
·   Quantitative and qualitative enhancement of agricultural products
·   Socio-economic dynamic and global markets
·   Sustainable development of small rural communities
·   Food consumption patterns; diet, environment, society, economy and health
 
 
 
 

 


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